EU countries

The European Union (EU) is a union that stands out with its countries, history, and culture. Since its establishment in 1993, it has continued as a strong economic and political organization.

 

In this article, we will give you a list of the EU countries list and get to know the EU countries closely.

What Is the European Union?

The European Union is a political and economic union of 27 countries in Europe. EU members are subject to privileges and obligations within this political union.

 

Each of the EU countries is bound by common legislative and judicial institutions and a standardized legal system. EU policies aim to have a single internal market and free movement of capital, services, goods, and people. In addition, due to EU policies, all European Union members must come to a unanimous decision on foreign affairs and defense issues.

 

The EU aims to ensure freedom, democracy, human rights, equality, human dignity, and the rule of law. Its first objective is maintaining peace, justice, freedom, and social security among EU members.

EU Countries List

Country

Accession Date

France

Jan. 1, 1958

Luxembourg

Jan. 1, 1958

Belgium

Jan. 1, 1958

Germany

Jan. 1, 1958

Italy

Jan. 1, 1958

Netherlands

Jan. 1, 1958

Denmark

Jan. 1, 1973

Ireland

Jan. 1, 1973

Greece

Jan. 1, 1981

Portugal

Jan. 1, 1986

Spain

Jan. 1, 1986

Austria

Jan. 1, 1995

Finland

Jan. 1, 1995

Sweden

Jan. 1, 1995

Estonia

May 1, 2004

Hungary

May 1, 2004

Cyprus

May 1, 2004

Czech Republic

May 1, 2004

Latvia

May 1, 2004

Malta

May 1, 2004

Lithuania

May 1, 2004

Slovakia

May 1, 2004

Poland

May 1, 2004

Slovenia

May 1, 2004

Bulgaria

Jan. 1, 2007

Romania

Jan. 1, 2007

Croatia

Jul. 1, 2013

European Union Countries

1. France

France, which has been an EU member since Jan. 1, 1958, has a population of more than 67 million people in an area of ​​640,679 km². Its official language is French, and its capital is Paris. France’s form of government, a unitary state, is also a semi-presidential system. France became a member of the Eurozone on Jan. 1, 1999, and its currency has been the Euro (€) ever since. In addition, France joined the Schengen Area on Mar. 26, 1995.

 

2. Luxembourg

Luxembourg, one of the first members of the European Union, joined in 1958. According to current data, the population of Luxembourg is around 632,000 and its total surface area is 2,586 km². The official languages ​​of Luxembourg are German and French. Its capital is Luxembourg. Luxembourg has been a member of the Eurozone since Jan. 1, 1999, and its currency is the Euro. Luxembourg’s form of government is a constitutional monarchy. In addition, Luxembourg joined the Schengen Area on Mar. 26, 1995.

 

3. Belgium

Belgium, which joined the EU on Jan. 1, 1958, has an area of ​​30,528 km² and a population of around 11 million. The capital of Belgium is Brussels, and the official languages ​​are French, German, and Dutch. The currency of Belgium, which joined the Eurozone on Jan. 1, 1999, has been the Euro since then. Belgium’s government system is a federal parliamentary monarchy. Belgium has been a Schengen member since Mar. 26, 1995.

 

4. Germany

Germany, one of the founding members of the EU, has been a member since 1958. Germany, which has an area of ​​357,578 km², has a population of around 83 million. The official language of Germany is German, and its capital is Berlin. The government system of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic. Since joining the Eurozone on Jan. 1, 1999, Germany’s currency has also been the Euro. Germany became a member of the Schengen Area on Mar. 26, 1995.

 

5. Italy

Italy has been in the Union since 1958 as one of the founding members of the EU. With a population of more than 59 million, Italy has a geographical area of ​​301,338 km². The official language of Italy is Italian, and its capital is Rome. Italy is governed as a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic. Also, Italy has been in the Eurozone since Jan. 1, 1999, and its currency is the Euro. Italy has been in the Schengen Area since Oct. 26, 1997.

 

6. The Netherlands

The last founding member of the EU is the Netherlands. It has been a member of the EU since Jan. 1, 1958. According to current data, it has a population of around 17 million and an area of ​​41,528 km². The official language of the Netherlands is Dutch, and the capital of the country is Amsterdam. Like the other founding members of the EU, it has been in the Eurozone since Jan. 1, 1999, and its currency is the Euro. A unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy governs the Netherlands. Also, the Netherlands has been one of the countries in the Schengen Area since Mar. 26, 1995.

 

7. Denmark

Denmark, which was included among the European Union countries on Jan. 1, 1973, has been one of the Schengen countries since Mar. 25, 2001. Denmark has over 5 million people with an area of ​​43,094 km². The official language of Denmark is Danish, and its capital city is Copenhagen. Unlike other EU countries, Denmark’s currency is the Danish Krone (DKK). Denmark is governed by a constitutional monarchy and unitary parliamentary democracy.

 

8. Ireland

Ireland, which has been an EU member since Jan. 1, 1973, is not in the Schengen Area, unlike many EU countries. With a population of more than 4 million, Ireland has an area of ​​70,273 km². Its official languages ​​are English and Irish. The capital of Ireland is Dublin. Also, like many EU countries, it has been in the Eurozone since Jan. 1, 1999. Ireland’s form of government is a unitary parliamentary republic.

 

9. Greece

Greece, another member of the European Union, joined the Union on Jan. 1, 1981, and became one of the Schengen countries on Jan. 1, 2000. With a population of around 10 million, Greece has a geographical area of ​​131,957 km². Greece joined the Eurozone on Jan. 1, 2001. The government of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic. The official language of Greece is Greek, and the capital of Greece is Athens.

 

10. Portugal

Portugal became a member of the European Union on Jan. 1, 1986. On Mar. 26, 1995, it was included in the Schengen Area with Spain. According to current data, Portugal has a population of around 10 million, with an area of ​​92,280 km². Portugal’s currency has been the Euro since it joined the Eurozone. Portugal’s official language is Portuguese and its capital city is Lisbon. Portugal’s government is a unitary semi-presidential republic.

 

11. Spain

Spain, which has been an EU member since Jan. 1, 1986, like Portugal, has been a Schengen country since Mar. 26, 1995. The official language of Spain is Spanish. According to current data, Spain, which has a population of 47 million, has an area of ​​505,992 km². The currency of Spain, which became a member of the Eurozone on Jan. 1, 1999, has been the Euro since then. The capital city of Spain is Madrid.

 

12. Austria

With a population of more than 8 million, Austria has been a member of the EU since Jan. 1, 1995. Austria has a geographical area of ​​83,879 km². The official language of Austria is German, and the capital is Vienna. Austria joined the Schengen countries on Dec. 1, 2007. Its form of government is a federal parliamentary republic. The currency is Euro.

 

13. Finland

Finland, which became an EU member on Jan. 1, 1995, is governed by the unitary republic system. With a population of around 5 million, Finland has an area of ​​338,424 km². Finland’s currency is the Euro. The capital of Finland is Helsinki and the official languages ​​are Swedish and Finnish. It also became a member of the Schengen Area on Mar. 25, 2001.

 

14. Sweden

Sweden joined the European Union on Jan. 1, 1995. Sweden has a population of around 10 million and a geographical area of ​​450,295 km². While the currency of many European Union countries is Euro, Sweden’s currency is Swedish Krona (SEK). The official language of Sweden is Swedish, and its capital is Stockholm. In addition, Sweden joined the Schengen Area on Mar. 25 2001. A unitary parliamentary monarchy governs Sweden.

 

15. Estonia

Estonia joined the European Union on May 1, 2004. In 2007, it became one of the Schengen countries. The official language of Estonia is Estonian and its capital is Tallinn. It was included in the Eurozone on Jan. 1, 2011, and its currency became the Euro. The population of Estonia exceeds 1 million, and its geographical area is 45,227 km². Also, Estonia is governed by a unitary parliamentary republic.

 

16. Hungary

Hungary, which joined the European Union on May 1, 2004, has been in the Schengen Area since Dec. 21, 2007. Hungary has a population of 9 million within a geographical area of ​​131,957 km². The government of Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic. Its official language is Hungarian, and its capital is Budapest. The Hungarian Forint is the currency of Hungary.

 

17. Cyprus

Cyprus, the third-largest island in the Mediterranean is another country that joined the European Union on May 1, 2004. It has a geographical area of ​​9,251 km² with a population of more than 1 million. After entering the Eurozone in 2008, its currency became the Euro. The capital of Cyprus is Nicosia. Cyprus is governed as a unitary republic with a presidential system. Unlike most EU members, Cyprus is not part of the Schengen Area.

 

18. The Czech Republic

The Czech Republic, also known as the Czech Republic, has a surface area of ​​78,866 km². With a population of over 10 million, Czechia became one of the EU countries on May 1, 2004. The currency of the Czech Republic is the Czech Koruna, and the official language is Czech. Prague is also the capital of the Czech Republic. Czechia joined the Schengen Area in 2007.

 

19. Latvia

Latvia, which was included in the EU countries on May 1, 2004, has been one of the Schengen countries since 2007. It has an area of ​​64,589 km² with a population of more than 1 million. Riga is the capital of Latvia, whose official language is Latvian. Latvia became a member of the Eurozone in 2014, is the Euro. A parliamentary democracy governs Latvia.

 

20. Malta

Malta, which joined the EU countries on May 1, 2014, has a population of 525,000. Its area is 316 km². Malta consists of three large and two small islands and is named after the largest island, Malta. Its official languages ​​are Maltese and English, and the currency is the Euro. Its capital is Valletta, which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. A parliamentary republic governs Malta. In 2007, it was included in the Schengen countries.

 

21. Lithuania

Lithuania became one of the EU members on May 1, 2004. With a population of more than two million, Lithuania has an area of ​​65,300 km². The currency of Lithuania, which was included in the Eurozone in 2014, became the Euro after this date. The capital of Lithuania, whose official language is Lithuanian, is Vilnius. Lithuania’s form of government is a parliamentary democracy. In addition, Lithuania was included in the Schengen Area in 2007.

 

22. Slovakia

Slovakia became one of the EU countries on May 1, 2004. With a population of more than five million, Slovakia has a geographical area of ​​49,035 km². Also, Slovakia became one of the Schengen countries in 1995. The official language of Slovakia is Slovak, and its capital is Bratislava. The currency of Slovakia, which was included in the Eurozone in 2009, is the Euro. Slovakia’s form of government is a parliamentary republic.

 

23. Poland

Poland, which became an EU member on May 1, 2004, has been in the Schengen Area since 2007. With a population of 37 million, Poland has a geographical area of ​​312,696 km². The official language of Poland is Polish. Also, the currency of Poland is the Polish Zloty. In addition, Poland is governed by a republic.

 

24. Slovenia

With a population of around two million, Slovenia has been a member of the EU since May 1, 2004. Slovenia has a geographical area of ​​20,271 km². Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia, and the country’s official language is Slovenian. Slovenia was included in the Eurozone in 2007. Slovenia’s form of government is a unitary parliamentary republic. Also, since 2007 Slovenia has been one of the Schengen countries.

 

25. Bulgaria

Bulgaria, one of the last countries to join the EU, was included on Jan. 1, 2007. The area of ​​Bulgaria, which has a population of more than six million, is 110,994 km². The official language of Bulgaria is Bulgarian, and its capital is Sofia. The currency of Bulgaria, which is governed by a unitary parliamentary democracy system, is the Bulgarian Lev (BGN). Also, unlike many EU members, Bulgaria is not in the Schengen Area.

 

26. Romania

Another country that joined the EU on Jan. 1, 2007, is Romania. The surface area of ​​Romania, which has a population of 19 million, is 238,391 km². The official language of Romania is Romanian, and its currency is the Romanian Leu. Also, the capital of Romania is Bucharest, and the form of government is a semi-presidential republic. Also, like Bulgaria, Romania is not in the Schengen Area.

 

27. Croatia

Croatia was the last country to join the European Union, which joined on Jul. 1, 2013. According to current data, Croatia, which has a population of around four million, has a surface area of ​​56,594 km². The capital of Croatia is Zagreb, and its currency is the Croatian Kuna (HRK). The official language of Croatia is Croatian, and the government type is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic.

Frequently Asked Questions on European Union Members

When was the European Union founded?

The founding of the European Union began with the Treaty of Rome on Jan. 1, 1958. Six founding members came together to form the European Economic Community. By Nov. 1, 1993, it became a political and economic organization called the European Union.

How many EU nations are there?

There are 27 members of the European Union.

Which countries are EU members but not in the Schengen Area?

Five European countries are not in the Schengen Area. These are Cyprus, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Ireland.

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